Nanobubbles Enhance Water Quality
Access to safe drinking water is a human right. However, the challenge of producing safe drinking water begins with all the either naturally occurring or man-produced minerals and toxins that can make water unsuitable for human consumption. Removing arsenic, chromium, manganese, salts, nitrates, phosphates, pharmaceutical pollutants, chemicals, viruses, and bacteria from water requires an effective and affordable approach. While common methods such as adding chlorine to water, solar disinfection, or different types of filtration methods offer partial solutions, nanobubbles offer a better solution.
Nanobubbles Have Unique Properties
All bubbles consist of some type of gas encased within a liquid. During the generation of any bubble type, vibration, expansion, contraction, temperature, pressure, ion strength, and pH affect the elasticity of the outer surface. Because nanobubbles form through cavitation, chemical reactions, or ultrasonic stimulation, nanobubbles have unique physical characteristics
Nanobubbles rise slowly, have a large surface area to volume ratio, and exhibit low buoyancy when compared to other types of bubbles. Larger surface areas allow nanobubbles to efficiently deliver any gas to water. Because nanobubbles have greater shell stability, very low contact angles, and longevity, the bubbles remain suspended in water for weeks and—sometimes—months.
Oxygen-filled Nanobubbles Improve Wastewater Treatment
Within molecular oxygen, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) or the groups of free radicals—or unstable molecules exist. Each unstable oxygen-based molecule is reactive because of the one or more weak bonds that produce unpaired electrons. All Reactive Molecule Species (RMS) occur as by-products of metabolism. In turn, the presence of ROS in water oxidizes pollutants and pathogens.
Increasing the concentration of dissolved oxygen in wastewater treatment causes oxidation that removes pollutants from wastewater. While mechanical aeration or diffusion can increase the oxygen content of wastewater, increased energy use and operating costs negate any gains in efficiency. In contrast, releasing nanobubbles into water distributes oxygen over a longer time period while saturating the water with dissolved water.
Studies show that nanobubble-aerated water has twice the oxygen-utilization rate and volumetric mass transfer coefficient of mechanical aerators or diffusers. The time required to degrade organic pollutants dropped by one-half. Additional studies also demonstrated that oxygen-filled nanobubbles improved water treatment efficiencies for tap water, domestic wastewater, industrial wastewater, and pond water. While the concentration of dissolved oxygen increased, the demand for chemical oxygen--the measure of organic pollution in water--decreased.
Oxygen-filled nanobubbles stimulate the growth of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. While aerobic treatment uses the elevated presence of dissolved oxygen to assimilate organic matter and pollutants from wastewater with less than 1000 parts per million (ppm), anaerobic treatments break down organic impurities such as methane and carbon dioxide from wastewater that has greater than 4,000 ppm.
Oxygen-filled nanobubbles also produce desired ROS in water. As the bubbles collapse, the release of large amounts of hydroxyl radicals and sulfate radicals into water removes organic contaminants and eliminates toxic chemicals, pharmaceutical contaminants, agricultural waste, fertilizers, herbicides, dyes, antibiotics, and other pollutants.
Ozone-filled Nanobubbles Improve Water Quality
Ozone gas has properties that eliminate viruses, bacteria, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium. Exposure to ozone gas also separates herbicides and pesticides into environment-friendly particles. Going a step further, bonding ozone molecules with hydrogen atoms forms hydroxyl radicals and gives ozone oxidation properties. Oxidation removes colors, organic chemicals, and odor-causing contaminates. Combining ozone with ultraviolet irradiation, proprietary catalysts, and other oxidants—such as hydrogen peroxide—speeds oxidation.
Because Ozone converts to oxygen, water treated with ozone has no toxic residuals or chemicals. With no chemicals introduced for water treatment, the water has no chemical taste.
The effectiveness of ozonation—or the diffusion of ozone gas into water—depends on the solubility of ozone in water. Generating high turbulence improves the solubility of ozone and the necessary contact between air and water. In addition, ozonation effectiveness depends on the concentration of ozone in water, the contact time with contaminants, and the susceptibility of contaminants to ozone.
Nanobubbles Improve Ozonation
The composition and stability of nanobubbles improves ozonation effectiveness. While nanobubbles increase the concentration of a dissolved gas into water, the introduction of the bubbles also alters the density of water and hastens the separation of chemicals and oils from water.
The combination of small size and low buoyancy seen with nanobubbles lessens fouling at the surface. Because nanobubbles slowly float to the surface of the water and exhibit good flotation efficiency, nanobubbles can extract and absorb toxins from oily, metal-filled, and dye-polluted wastewater. The production of hydroxyl radicals and resulting oxidation in water negates the need for adding chlorine to purify water.
Magnation Water Technologies Efficiently Release Nanobubbles
Magnation products combine centrifugal forces, vortexing, and magnetics to increase the aeration of water and cavitation that produces nanobubbles. As a result, the level of dissolved oxygen in water increases. In addition, the combination of physical and magnetic forces also reduces friction and allows water to easily flow. Magnation products break mineral clusters and contaminants from water, reducing and preventing scale without the addition of chemicals or any increase in energy usage.
To learn more about the advantages offered through the Magnation Water Technologies product line, contact a professional at 888 820 0363 or submit a contact form.